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APR 16 1921
JOINT BULLETIN No. 3
Vermont Botanical and
Published Annually by the Clubs
Free Press Printing Company
OFFICERS AND STANDING COMMITTEES
PRESIDENT, Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury.
VICE-PRESIDENT, Harry F. Perkins, Burlington.
SECRETARY, George P. Burns, Burlington.
TREASURER, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington.
LIBRARIAN, Miss Phoebe Towle, Burlington.
ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN, L. H. Flint, Burlington.
EDITORS OF BULLETIN, George L. Kirk, Rutland, and A. E.
VERMONT BOTANICAL AND BIRD CLUBS
Joint Bulletin No. 3 April, 1917
Published Annually by the Clubs
One copy of this bulletin is sent to each member. Extra copies
of bulletins 1 to 8 of the Vermont Bird Club and 1 to 9 of the Vermont
Botanical Club and Joint Bulletin 1-2 may be obtained of the librarian
at Burlington at 10 cents each, postpaid, to club members and 25 cents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
The Summer Meeting at Wallingford 4
Report of Treasurer 5
Twenty-Second Winter Meeting 6
Report on the Vermont Hepaticae for 1916, Annie Lorenz 7
Colony of Virginia and Sora Rails, Duane E. Kent 8
White Pine Blister Rust, George P. Burns 10
Nesting of the Connecticut Warbler, Inez Addie Howe 11
The Algae of Vermont, L. H. Flint 12
Goshawks Unusually Numerous, Evalyn Darling Morgan 18
Good "Finds" in Vermont, E. H. Eames 19
Explorations in Eden, Clarence H. Knowlton 20
New Stations for Vermont Plants, Ella Munsell 21
The Male Fern and Its Distribution, E. S. Shaw 23
New Plants for St. Johnsbury, Inez Addie Howe 23
Notes on West River Flora, Leston A. Wheeler 24
Quercus Ambigua Michx, George P. Burns 24
Short Notes of Interest 25
4 Joint Bi lt.ktin 3
The club is glad to receive so many contributions for the bulletin
from botanists living outside of the state. Many of these people come
to Vermont on vacations and because they have a great deal more
time at their disposal than the average Vermont botanist, whose ex-
cursions afield are largely confined to one-day trips, they are able to
cover a great deal of ground which might otherwise go unexplored.
The visiting plant lovers thus add to our knowledge of local floras.
Some wonder is expressed by botanists from neighboring states
who visit Vermont that the flora published in 1915 does not show a
wider distribution for certain plants. This is due to the fact that
the committee on publication desired to limit the number of stations
with a view to keeping the flora from reaching a size which would
make the cost exceed the sum set aside for it by the state.
FIELDS OPEN TO VERMONT NATURALISTS
The study of the distribution of plants, especially the higher forms,
has been carried on to such a degree that many people are thoroughly
conversant with the botany of Vermont. The time is ripe for systematic
investigation of some single group of plants or other work that will
add to our knowledge of the natural history of the state. Mr. Flint
has opened the door to the study of algae in an article in this issue
of the bulletin. In bulletin 2 "The Mammals of Vermont" was pub-
lished. The reptiles offer opportunity for a contribution to the fauna
of the state. Who has the time and the interest to gather material
for a paper on the fishes or the mollusks? Who will be the first to col-
lect data as to the more common insects to be found in Vermont, par-
ticularly the lepidoptera?
THE SUMMER MEETING AT WALLINGFORD
Nellie F. Flynn
The summer meeting of the clubs was held at Wallingford, July
11 and 12, 1916. The headquarters were at Hotel Wallingford and the
attendance, which was larger than usual, about 35, taxed the resources
of the house to the utmost.
The members were mostly on hand for the Tuesday morning ride
on a hayrack to the '"White Rocks." It was a pleasant trip and a
fine time was had, but it was rather a disappointment botanically as
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 5
the rocks are too dry for vegetation. At the foot is a small ice cave
from which issues a stream of very refreshing cold water. Wednesdaj*
a trip was made to some swamps in Tinmouth. The swamps proved
rather barren of anything except a few swamp grasses and sedges,
but the woods at their edge had some of the rarer rock ferns and some
good violets. The showy lady's slipper Gypripedium Jiirsutum and
one-flowered pyrola, Moneses uniflora grew at one swamp.
Side trips were made by some of the members who brought back
the orchids, Pogonia ophioglossoides and Calopogon pulchellus and the
horned bladderwort Utricularia cornuta from Elfin Lake bog, G-oldie's
fern, Aspidium Goldianum and narrow-leaved spleenwort, Asplenium
angustifolium from rich woods on the river road, and the purple loose-
strife LytUrum Salicaria, which grows abundantly along the banks of
the Otter Creek.
VERMONT BOTANICAL CLUB
Cash on hand Jan. 19, 1916 $ 54.60
Received from dues ' 111.00
Sale of club pins .' 1.30
One-half balance transportation fund , .62
One-half bill printing joint bulletin No. 2 $ 32.50
One-half bill printing notices, dues cards and receipts 11.72
One-half bill typewriting for bulletin 1.00
One-half telephone bill .76
Balance Jan. 26, 1917 105.96
Life membership fund $ 140.00
Accrued interest on same 11.52
6 Joint Bulletin 3
VERMONT BIRD CLUB
Cash on hand Jan. 19, 1916 $ 12.76
Received from dues 7 ",.60
One-half balance of transportation fund .63
One-half printing bulletin No. 2 $ 32.50
One-half printing notices, dues cards and receipts 11.71
Dues to Audobon Society 5.00
One-half bill typewriting for bulletin 1.00
One-half telephone bill .76
Balance Jan. 26, 1917 21.19
Life membership fund $ 30.00
Accrued interest on same . '. 4.83
TWENTY-SECOND WINTER MEETING
George P. Burns
The 22nd annual winter meeting of the Vermont Botanical club and
the 15th annual winter meeting of the Vermont Bird club was held at
the University of Vermont January 26 and 27, 1917. The meeting was
not as largely attended as some of the previous meetings. The club
members were especially sorry to learn that the president of the clubs.
Dr. Ezra Brainerd, could not attend because he had an important busi-
ness engagement in New York. Some of the most valuable members of
the club were detained but those who came enjoyed a profitable time
and the program was carried out in full.
The business meetings were presided over by the secretary.
The club decided to hold the annual summer meeting on Mt. Mans-
field the week following July 4.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 7
The officers elected were: President, Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury;
vice-president, Harry T. Perkins, Burlington; secretary, George P.
Burns, Burlington; treasurer, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington;
librarian, Miss Phoebe Towle, Burlington; editors of bulletin, George
L. Kirk, Rutland, and A. E. Lambert, Middlebury.
Miss Towle will not be in Vermont next year and L. H. Flint,
of Burlington, was elected assistant librarian to take charge of the work
during her absence.
The report of the treasurer was received and placed on file. The
local members of the two clubs gave a complimentary dinner to visit-
ing members at the Commons hall but the usual roll call was omitted
to allow some members to attend a concert.
The meeting adjourned Saturday morning at 10:30.
REPORT ON THE VERMONT HEPATICAE FOR 1916
The season of 1916 was a banner one for the Vermont hepatic list
with no less than five additions, including one new to New England,
bringing the total up to 127.
First of the acquisitions was Cephalozia macrostachya Kaal, from
the summer meeting at Wallingford. It was abundant in the sphag-
num bog at Elfin Lake.
On the adjournment of that meeting, the writer went to make a
visit in Ascutneyville. During an evening stroll near the village,
Ricciella crystallina (L.) Warnst, appeared on the sandy-clayey edge
of the road, a similar station to several in eastern Connecticut. The
plants, either of this, or of the following species, were not very large,
as it was only the middle of July, which is early for good material of
the largely annual Ricciaceae.
Next morning the writer explored the clayey bank of the Connecti-
cut River, and located, first, Riccia arvensis Aust., then more R. Crystal-
Una (L.) Warnst., and finally, an extremely attractive unfamiliar
Riccia. On being submitted to Dr. Howe, he reported it to be R.
Frostii Aust., not previously reported east of New York state. As this
species was named by Austin for his Brattleboro colleague, it seems only
appropriate that it should make its first New England appearance
within this state.
As pickings were so good on this side of the river, the writer then
tried the banks at the Claremont end of the bridge, and gathered in
8 Joint Bulletin 3
Riccm arvensis Aust, which was No. 139 for New Hampshire, just for
Later, while motoring through Granville Notch, Mr. C. A.
Weatherby collected Radula tenax Lindb., a species whose appearance
the writer had been expecting for quite a while. There are still over
30 species on the New England list which it would not be unreasonable
to expect in Vermont.
COLONY OF VIRGINIA AND SORA RAILS
Duane E. Kent
I have often read of colonies of Virginia and sora rails, but it was
never my good fortune to visit one, until May 31, 1916.
My work often takes me to Bridport, Vt., and during the spring of
1916. I overheard Mr. R. B. Myrick telling about a cat-tail bog in a
meadow nearby, which he said, was inhabited by some strange birds
that made runways in the cat-tails and rank water sedges. I took it
for granted at once that the birds were rails, and through the kind-
ness of Mr. Myrick, I made plans to visit this bog the coming nesting
season and May 31, 1916, was the eventful day.
This bog is about one and one-half miles southwest from Bridport
village, on Mr. J. Swinton's farm. As the soil is very fertile, a
luxuriant growth of cat-tails, water-grasses, and sedges form a jungle,
some of the cat-tails reaching above my head. The bog is in a little
meadow, commencing near a barn, and ranging from about four to 40
or 50 rods wide. It is nearly a half mile in length, emptying into
Dead creek, north of the barn.
In May there was only a short growth of new shoots showing
above the dead grasses, which in some places were matted lightly to-
gether, making a mass two feet in depth. Of course most of the fruit-
ing cat-tails were still erect, and this, with a considerable depth of
mud, made it a very difficult place to locate nests.
When Mr. Myrick and I arrived at the bog, bobolinks, meadow-
larks and vesper, song and Savannah sparrows were singing in the
meadow close by, and numerous red-winged blackbirds, and long-
billed marsh-wrens were very active in the cat-tails, but not a sound
came from the rails. After entering the cat-tails, my delight was un-
bounded upon hearing the Virginia rail's note, and from this on, we
could hear them continually in different parts of the bog.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 9
We had been searching for nests only a short time, when Mr.
Myrick located a Virginia rail's nest just completed, about two feet
from the water in a mass of dead grasses; then a short distance from
this I found one containing two eggs. This nest was also placed up in
I have forgotten now just how many nests we located in the short
time we spent in the bog, but I would say probably eight or 10. Some
were placed on the ground at the foot of cat-tails, built up from the
water with dead grasses and cat-tails as supports. Others were arched
over and placed in thick masses of dead cat-tails. A few were just
completed.. Others containing from one to five eggs were seen. As
we failed to locate a full set, (which is from eight to 12 eggs), I de-
cided to visit this location again in two weeks.
Just as we were leaving on the occasion of the first visit I heard
Mr. Myrick call, saying that he had found something different. I hur-
ried over. to him, and there among a luxuriant growth of cat-tails, and
placed on the ground, was a sora rail's nest containing 13 eggs, in two
layers; about the finest sight I ever saw. At once the parent birds
commenced their cackling call, "cut-cut-cut-cut"; the first sora I had
ever heard. The birds were very tame, and as they were so near,
(only six or eight feet distant), and making such a disturbance, it
seemed as though we were about stepping on them; especially as the
grasses were so dense, it was impossible to see them. The nest was
made of a mass of dead cat-tail flags, and was about six inches deep,
and eight inches wide. The eggs ranged in incubation from about
three to 10 days. I now have the nest and eggs in my collection. Mr.
L. F. Brehmer, photographer of Rutland, has a colored lantern slide
and stereoscope of this nest and eggs.
Two weeks later, I again visited the place and found that most
of the Virginia rails' nests found on the earlier date had been destroyed
by mice and muskrats, and in one of the nests I found a litter of young
field mice. (Microtus pennsylvanicus) . As we found these nests de-
stroyed, I decided to try a different part of the swamp and then went
north of the meadow, just in the edge of the pasture. As soon as we
entered the cat-tails a number of Virginia rails commenced to sound
their alarm notes, and in a few minutes I had located three nests, one
containing seven eggs, the other two containing eight eggs each.
Most of the eggs in each nest were pipped. All of these nests were
placed on the ground, and not concealed in the least. One I could easily
see when 20 feet away.
10 Joint Bulletin 3
It was very interesting to note how tame the parent birds were, this
of course being caused by the eggs being nearly ready to hatch and the
mother bird being anxious to resume her incubating.
During our visits to this locality, we found a number of red-
winged blackbirds' and 25 long-billed marsh-wrens' nests.
It would be interesting to take a census of the rails and wrens that
were nesting in a certain area of this bog. and then estimate the num-
ber of nesting rails in the entire swamp. Of course, it would be im-
possible to make a very accurate estimate, unless this was done. I
won't make the attempt at this time, as I am afraid it might sound
exaggerated to readers.
The coming season I hope to spend more time at this interesting
place, and I can assure all bird lovers that their time will be well in-
vested if they could visit a colony of rails.
WHITE PINE BLISTER RUST
George P. Burns
Vermont has no finer tree than the white pine but it is today in
danger of elimination from the Vermont forests if we are to judge by
the experiences of some of the European countries, such as Holland
and Russia, where the growing of white pine has been made impossible
by the white pine blister rust. In certain regions in Maine, about 85
per cent, of the trees are affected and over a third of them are dead
from the same trouble. This parasite, introduced into this country in
1909, on imported white pine seedlings, attacks the young plants pro-
ducing yellow blisters full of powder-like spores. The disease finally
kills the tree after a few years although it may remain alive for a long
time. Old trees are not as often affected by this rust as are the
The same parasite which causes the blister rust lives part of its
life-cycle on the leaves of the currant and gooseberry. Rust spots ap-
pear on these plants in May and from them, the disease spreads to the
pines. The essential point in blister rust control, therefore, is the
eradication of currant and gooseberry bushes in the neighborhood of
The Vermont department of forestry has tried to control this
dangerous pest by watching all the white pine plantations where im-
ported seedlings were set out in 1909, and by inspecting all currant
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 11
and gooseberry bushes in the vicinity of pines. A law giving the state
forester authority to root out all currants and gooseberries is necessary
and probably will be passed by the present legislature. Every member
of the Vermont Botanical club can help in this work of control by im-
mediately reporting rusts on currants or gooseberries to the state
NESTING OF THE CONNECTICUT WARBLER
Inez Addie Hoive
Among the rare birds that I have found in St. Johnsbury during
the past two years perhaps the Connecticut warbler is more interest-
ing than any of the others, owing to it having nested here the past two
seasons. My first observations on this species were made in June and
July, 1915. On the morning of June 10 I was attracted to a small
piece of damp woodland about 10 rods from my buildings, by an un-
usual bird-song. I carefully searched out the singer and found it to be
a male Connecticut warbler. Hiding myself in the underbrush I
watched it for a while, when to my surprise I discerned the female
hopping along the ground in a thrush-like fashion with her mouth full
of fine fibers suitable for nest-building. She almost disappeared in
some deep moss on a rocky bank, left her load and flew out to the
open field where no doubt she collected her nesting material. The
next day I spent a few minutes in watching the pair and the female
evidently did all of the work of building the nest while her mate sang
at his best.
During the next four days I found time to visit the spot oc-
casionally and on the morning of June 15 the female was on the nest
so I went away without disturbing her. On June 20 I found four
pinky-white eggs with brownish spots on them in the nest. On July
4 I again visited my noted tenants and found four little ones in the
Then came a week of summer meetings of the Vermont Botanical
club, much rain, and other interests than warbler babies. However,
on July 15 I paid them another call when I found the adults and two
young fairly well fledged in some low fir trees near the nesting site.
Although I visited the spot many times afterwards I did not see them
again in 1915.
On July 13, 1916, while botanizing in a famous old orchid swamp
in the northwest part of St. Johnsbury, I discovered a singing male in
12 Joint Bi'li.ktin 3
some low pine trees, on the border of the swamp and knowing how much
singing and how little work the male who lived in my woods the
previous summer had done, I immediately crouched to the ground and
scanned closely the moss under the pines where, to my delight, I spied
the plucky little mother sitting in her moss-hidden nest. I immedi-
ately withdrew lest I frighten her, so I do not know whether she was
brooding eggs or young.
On September 3 an adult male appeared in my garden searching
for food. He spent about an hour there, gave me a broken, half-
hearted autumn song and departed. I shall eagerly watch to see if
they return to us in 1917.
These are my only personal records or experiences with this rare
species. In addition to mine the Fairbanks' museum records show the
following list of dates for this species: 1901, June 9; 1902, May 18;
1903, May 16; 1905, May 18; 1906, May 23; 1908, September 1; 1914,
May 21. The specimen of 1908 was picked up dead in the grounds at
Elmwoode, St. Johnsbury. The specimens in the museum collection
were taken by Mr. W. E. Balch at Lunenburg September 14, 1905. Mr.
Balch also reports one as observed by him there on July 9, 1916.
He also sends me notes regarding his experiences with this species
in Lunenburg in previous years. He says he has taken one adult
specimen in late May but hasn't the exact date. He further states:
"I have taken a number of immature specimens or young of the year
from the first part of July until the last of August and I have always
expected to find the nest as I am sure they nest here from the young
birds I have seen and taken at different times."
I honestly believe that this species is far more common than most
observers think, because of its habits of keeping to cool, swampy woods,
flying rather low, in and out among the thick bushes and hiding
quickly when disturbed. Unless one were thoroughly familiar with
the song of this species it might easily be mistaken for a poor render-
ing of that of the Maryland yellow-throat or confused with some of the
higher notes of the mourning warbler. In both places where I have
found the Connecticut warbler I have also found the mourning warbler.
THE ALGAE OF VERMONT
L. H. Flint
Vermont is one of the smallest of the states, but no botanist need
ever pine for other worlds to conquer. Allow 10 years for an ac-
•Vermont Botanical and Bird Cr.un 13
quaintance with the flowering plants — and then there will be the club-
mosses and ferns and their allies. Allow five years for those — and
then there will be the fungi and lichens. Allow 10 years for those, and
then there are the mosses and liverworts. Allow 10 years more, and
then there are the algae. If anyone thinks to know all the algae of
Vermont he will die of exasperation if not of old age.
In climbing down the family tree of the plant kingdom, further-
more, the farther down we get, the smaller are the plants. We can
manage fairly well with a hand lens until we get to the algae perhaps,
but there we must have a compound microscope — that's one reason
why many of us have never climbed down among these interesting
plants. Not alone this, but the base of the tree stands in water. The
mosses and liverworts lead us to the water's edge, and when we go
down farther we get into water — I might say into deep water.
The algae, then, comprise the plants at the lower confines of the
vegetable kingdom. They are for the most part, so far as fresh water
forms are concerned, plants of microscopic size living in water or in
moist situations, of various colors and simple structure. They may be
separated into six groups, namely, the Myxophyceae or blue green
algae, the Chlorophyceae. or simple green algae, the Zygophyceae, or
conjugate algae, the Siphonophyceae, or tube algae, the Phaeophyceae,
or brown algae, and the Rhodophyceae. or red algae.
The lowest and simplest of the algae make up the blue-green group.
These plants are of one cell, in which there is no definite nucleus or
chloroplast, the contents being nearly homogeneous. The cell-wall of
these plants is not composed of true cellulose, but of a sort of gela-
tinous substance similar to animal cell-wall in composition. On ac-
count of the nature of the cell-wall and the simple fission method of
propagation, the plants give rise to colonies of plants, which appear as
blue-green masses, often in chains or filaments. As a representative of
one of the first subdivisions of this group we may consider the genus
Chi'oococcus, the plants of which are spherical, and whose species are
of various colors. The gray, blue, brown, red, yellow, orange and violet
colorings seen on our moist cliffs are often due to microscope algae of
this group. What at first appears as a stain upon a rock may often
prove a colony of these simple plants, and in this group the gelatinous
sheath is not noticeable to the unaided eye. This group bears per-
haps the closest resemblance to bacteria, and were not bacteriology
elevated to the position of a separate science we should have to in-
clude bacteria in a study of the algae.
14 Joint Bulletin 3
A second subdivision of the blue-green algae which invites especial
attention is represented by spherical or flattened colonies of plants.
These develop from single microscopic resting cells 1/2500 of an inch
or so in diameter, and form colonies as much as an inch in diameter
in some species. These are species of the genus Nostoc, and abound
in almost every habitat affording quiet fresh water, though many
species do not form colonies of a noticeable size. They will be found
growing with moss on dripping cliffs, or in quiet pools, and it is in the
latter habitat that they obtain their greatest size. The Nostocs vary
to some extent in color, but are mostly a rich olive green. Some
species require a continuous water habitat while others may be found in
moss or mud at the water's edge.
It will be observed that the dividing plants of the Nostoc remain
for a time adjacent to each other in the gelatinous mass of their partly
soluble cell-walls, so that the microscope reveals them to us as count-
less little chains of a dozen or more cells each, with occasional thicker-
walled resting cells. The next subdivision leads us to plants which
form individual filaments each having a gelatinous sheath but not
united in any definite mass with other filaments. These plants are best
represented in the genus Scytonema, and are found on moist cliffs,
where they often entwine with moss and form the basis of lime in-
crustations. Some of the rocks at the Winooski gorge are covered with
a red scab-like growth which consists almost entirely of these plants.
We have in the Scytonemas a growth which is a filament. In the
next subdivision we find a differentiation of the filament into a base
and apex, and the plants are attached to rocks under water, usually in
quiet pools or streams. The filaments divide and subdivide, and we
find strands radiating upward from a central point to form little
cushions up to a half inch in diameter. These are most frequently
represented in the genus Rivularia.
Another interesting subdivision of the blue-green algae is found
to be characterized by an unbranched filament without a noticeable
gelatinous sheath, the common genus of which is Oscillatoria. These
plants move about clockwise and sidewise. They are perhaps the most
common of the blue-green group — no pond or stream or swamp is
without them, and they occur frequently as brownish or greenish
"slime" on moist earth.
The Chlorophyceae. or simple green algae, are not so simple as we
might wish. In the blue-greens we traced a structural development
which began with a single free-floating sphere and ended in a plant
which had a filamentous form and a base and apex. But the struc-
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 15
tural changes were external, and all the cells were for the most part
similar. The simple algae usher in some changes within the cells.
The central portion of the cell becomes a more pronounced center of ac-
tivity and is called a nucleus, while the green coloring matter is in-
vested within a special body called the chloroplast.
The group of simple algae appears as a promiscuous gathering of
plants in which a number of experiments were tried. Chlorophyll is
the authorized coloring matter and nutritive agent it would seem, but
there is no agreement as to the shape into which it shall be in-
corporated. We find green flasks, green blankets, green cylinders,
green plates, green crescents and green footballs all striving to get the
most energy out of the sun: it seems that the idea of experimenting
is very old. Within this group also we find a variety of plant forms
which seem for the most part to lead nowhere in particular. The
modes of reproduction are likewise diverse. Within the group we
find certain plant cells giving rise to motile bodies called gametes,
which in turn lead varied existences, some of them fusing to form
spores, others developing directly into new plants.
The most common genera of this group will be considered very
briefly, with no attempt to enumerate their specific characters. The
Ulothrix is an unbranched filament having a blanket-shaped chloro-
plast. It is frequent on the wave-washed rocks at the lake here, and
was occasionally noted in mountain brooks. The Hydrodictyon or
water net is one of the most unique of all the algae, the colony being
made up of long cells arranged end to end in a curious manner form-
ing a net which sometimes measures several inches across. There is
but one species known, and this is abundant in quiet inlets along the
Lake Champlain front and in still pools. I have never found it ex-
cept at Burlington, but expect it will be reported from some of our
smaller lakes. Sce?iedesmus is a genus in which the colony of four
crescent-shaped cells is microscopic, and is occasional in still pools
with other algae. Oedogonium is a filamentous form of frequent oc-
currence. It has cylindrical chloroplasts, and the cell-wall is pe-
culiarly ridged. Stigeoclonium species are frequent throughout the
state, typically in running water. These plants may attain a length
of several inches, and are delicately branched. Four species are com-
monly noted. Chaetophora resembles Stigeoclonium in structure, but
grows radially, forming a rounded mass on submerged sticks and stones.
In Draparnaldia we have an interesting genus in which the main fila-
ment is surrounded by delicate whorls of branches, the whole being
contained within a gelatinous sheath. I have never found it except in
16 Joint Bitxetix 3
mountain brooks, where it occurs occasionally, and seems more or less
confined to shaded pools, where it is attached to rocks in under water.
Drapemaldia is one of the most beautiful of our algae, and like some of
our orchids, seems to seclude itself in the heart of the wildest woods.
The phylum Zj/gophyceae. the yellow-green or conjugate algae, in-
cludes some of our commonest algae. The group as a whole is charac-
terized by unbranched filaments consisting of a single series of
cylindrical cells. The plants are sluggish, typical of still waters, free-
floating, and for the most part yellow-green in color. The reproduction
is by the fusion of two cells in adjacent filaments following the forma-
tion of a connecting tube, and this fusion gives rise to a zygospore,
from which the group takes its name.
Spirogyra is the most noticeable of the genera in this group, and
about a dozen species are reported from Vermont. The green scums
on still pools and the large green masses resting on submerged rocks
are often made up chiefly of species of Spirogyra. The name of the
genus is suggested by the one or more spiral chloroplasts which wind
about within each cell. Spirogyra is one of the innocent recipients of
that non-botanical term "frogspit."
In Zygnema we have a genus of filamentous plants similar in habit
to Spirogyra. and differing chiefly in having two star-shaped chloro-
Dlasts within each cell instead of the spiral bands. While Zygnema is
not so widely represented in Vermont, there are several species, and
it is not at all uncommon.
The desmids comprise a subdivision of this group in which the
individual cells are organized into symmetrical halves, each contain-
ing a chloroplast. The filaments usually break up into single cells,
and some are motile. The desmids exhibit a wonderful variety of
form, and are often very beautiful. They are found free-floating in
quiet pools or entangled with other algae.
The diatoms comprise a group of plants characterized by rigid
silicate walls and a box-like structure, typically isolated but some-
times as a filament, for the most part yellow-brown in color and mov-
ing about through the water by means of pseudopodia. The silicate
walls of the diatoms are marked by minute transverse lines. The
desmids and diatoms are such varied groups of plants, and comprise so
many species — some 10,000 — that in the study of the writer they have
been passed by without comment. They abound in all waters and moist
The Siphonophyt eae or tube algae are typically aquatic green
plants, filamentous and branching, and composed either of segments or
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 17
of continuous tubes. Reproduction is more commonly by special cells
constituting antheridia and oogonia, or by asexual spores.
Of the green algae of this group five genera are of frequent repre-
sentation. Species of Cladophora. or water flannel, occur in tangled
masses of stout-branched filaments in streams and ponds. Vaucheria,
or green felt, forms dense felted masses in shallow water or on moist
earth. Potrydium. a balloon-shaped green algae, occasional on moist
ground, is often found along with Vaucheria. Nitella and Chara are
genera characterized by whorls of free branches, and are found in
the still waters of streams and ponds. They may attain a height of
several inches, and grow in upright attached masses.
The phylum phaeophyceae or brown algae consists mainly of
marine plants, and no representatives are reported from Vermont.
The phylum Rhodophyceae, or red algae, although comprising
marine forms mostly, has two freshwater forms within the state, rep-
resentatives of the genera Chantransia and Batrachospermum.
Chantransia violacea forms a purplish mat on wet rocks, the in-
dividual plants being about a quarter of an inch long. They are deli-
cately branched plants, not having a gelatinous sheath, and reproduc-
ing sexually by a carpogonium and antheridium. From my own
limited collecting this plant would seem rare in Vermont, being found
at a single station in a mountain brook.
The genus Batrachospermum is represented by the species
gelatinosum, and consists of a main cylinder of elongated cells sur-
rounded by a cortex of smaller cells containing the chloroplasts and a
reddish coloring matter, the whole being invested within a gelatinous
sheath. At more or less regular intervals this rudimentary stem is
beset with clusters of delicate branches. This plant is attached, as is
Chantransia, and branches freely, sometimes attaining a height of sev-
eral inches. It is confined to cold streams of the mountains, where
it is not infrequent, being noted in about a dozen stations. These two
red algae are both plants of the mountains, and, it seems to me, are
the most beautiful of all.
This group completes the enumeration of our most common algae.
Within this brief survey we have traced an evolution from a plant
consisting of a single spherical cell to one having a rudimentary stem
of several cells thickness, from a plant of microscopic size to one
of several inches in height, from a plant reproducing by simple cell fis-
sion to one having special cells set aside for reproduction. The algae re-
veal to us the early struggles of nature in building up the plant world,
and are witnesses of some of her most fantastic experiments. To study
18 Joint Bulletin 3
the algae is to gain a greater in-sight into the beauties and wonders of
our earth, as well as to add much to our understanding of the present
world flora of flowering plants.
A considerable number of preserved specimens of algae have been
placed on file in the Pringle herbarium at the University of Vermont
and will be gladly shown at any time to those who may be interested.
GOSHAWKS UNUSUALLY NUMEROUS
Evalyn DarUng Morgan
During the month of November, 1916, an unusual number of
goshawks visited Woodstock and vicinity so that instead of being rare,
they were for a time actually common.
On November 2 a nearby poultryman shot one as it was killing a
hen, and sent the specimen to me. It proved a splendid one, measur-
ing 26 inches in length. This was a female and its mate was seen for
several days in the poultry yards where it manifested great boldness,
but escaped with its life, as well as with its prey.
A few days after that, one visited "The Highlands" in Hartland and
I had the experience of watching it catch a field mouse. It perched
on a conspicuous branch of a butternut tree on the edge of the field, re-
maining motionless for a long time, and then of a sudden, swooping
down with cruel swiftness on its prey. As it sailed up from the ground
the blue-gray of its back was strikingly attractive. Another day it at-
tempted to secure a chicken near the barn, but was greeted by such an
uproar from the flock that it retreated and was not seen again.
The following week another specimen, also a female, was sent me
by a farmer in Hartland, and during that week I obtained four ad-
An exhibition of hawk skins at the "Old Home Day" (Hartland)
celebration awakened considerable interest. It included a specimen of
Swainson's hawk taken May 23, 1915, in Hartland village. For some-
time it was observed perching in perfect unconcern in nearby trees,
seeming friendly and unafraid, and finally proved a tempting target to a
man with a gun. It is a striking blackish-brown bird — this one, a
male, measuring 20 inches. In the west where it is common it is con-
sidered a great friend of the farmer as it destroys so many rodents.
It would be interesting to know how many of these birds have
been taken in this state. Vermont's preliminary list says: "This
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 19
is a rare species in the state. Lunenburg, Balch." Do the club mem-
bers have additional records?
GOOD "FINDS" IN VERMONT
E. H. Eames.
During 1915 and 1916 Mr. C. C. Godfrey and the writer spent some
time in Vermont and some very good plants were collected. Several of
these appear to be without record in the state, judging by the recent
Flora. Others appear to be known from few stations and a few are of
interest because of extension of range from the small areas stated in
the catalogue. The following notes summarize the data:
Polypodium vulgare L. var. attenuatum Milde. Plentiful on certain
ledges at Hubbardton.
Crytogramma Stelleri (Gmel) Prantl. More or less calcareous ledges
at Mt. Willoughby, etc.
Potamogeton angustifolius. Berchtold and Presl. Keeler and Huff ponds
and Lake Hortonia, Sudbury.
Potamogeton foliosus Raf. Lake Bomoseen, also Silver Lake, Leicester.
Carex granularis Muhl. var. Haleana (Olney) Porter. Brandon.
Carex foenea Willd. var. perplexa Bailey. Hubbardton.
Carex Pseudo-Cyperus L. Castleton, Hubbardton, Orwell, Sudbury; lo-
cal not rare.
Fimbristylis Frankii Steud. Muddy shore of Burr pond, Sudbury, with
Eleocharis olivacea Torr. As above.
*Agrostis alba L. Teratological form mentioned in Gray manual ed. 7.
(A. sylvatica L.) Lake Willoughby.
Zizania palustris L. Abundant in Lake Bomoseen marshes.
Scirpus occidentalis (Wats) Chase. Common, often abundant, in ponds
and lakes of western Vermont, north to Sudbury, at least.
Lemna trisulca L. Silver lake, Leicester.
J uncus bufonius L. var. congestus Wahl. Pawlet.
Salix Candida Flugge. Castleton, Hubbardton, Sudbury, Brandon; lo-
cal, not rare in suitable places.
Alnus crispa (Ait) Pursh. var. mollis Fern. Cliffs, Mt. Willoughby.
Lychnis chalcedonica L. Sudbury.
Gypophila paniculata L. Westmore.
20 Joint Bulletin 3
Clematis verticillaris. D. C. Mt. Willoughbv, plentiful about tops of
Potent ilia Anserina L. var. sericea Hayne. Shore of Lake Champlain
*Acalypha gracilens, Gray. Sudbury where abundant over small area
of dry pasture.
Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray. var. tenuifolia (Torr) Wats. Sudbury.
Pt/rola secunda L. var. obtusata. Turcz. Sudbury, Brandon; appar-
ently in almost any arbor vitae-larch swamp.
Pterospora audromedea Nutt. Hemlock woods, Sudbury.
Stachys palustris L. Marsh bordering on Lake Bomoseen.
*Utricularia minor L. Shallow water of pools at Lake Bomoseen,,
Hubbardton; also Marl pond, Westmore.
Solidago rugosa Mill. var. villosa (Pursh) Fernald. Plentiful along a
woodland road east of Mt. Willoughby, Westmore; altitude about
Hieracium florentirium All. Sudbury.
♦New to Vermont.
EXPLORATIONS IN EDEN
Clarence H. Knowlton
A party of eight botanists spent four days of last July camping at
Eden Pond. The most interesting place visited was the Garden of
Eden, a peat-bog at high elevation. In the swampy wooded margin
were Listera cordata, L. convallarioides, and Habenaria obtusata. Be-
side the usual ericaceous plants of the open bog we found
Rhamnus alnifolia and Salix pedicillaris var. hypoglanca. Herbaceous
plants included Cyprxpedium hirsutum, C. parviflorum, Thalictrum.
polygamum var. hcbecarpum, Saxifraga pennsylvanica, and one soli
tary plant of Pyrola asarifolia var. incarnata. In wet evergreen woods
beyond the bog were Epipactis repens var. ophioides, Oxalis Acetosella
var. subpurpurascens and Carex paupercula var. pallens.
Other interesting species of the town were Polystichum Braunii,
Danthonia compressa. Eriophorum gracile, Habenaria orbiculata, H.
dilatata, and Mimulus moschatus. the last in full bloom.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 21
NEW STATIONS FOR VERMONT PLANTS
The following list of plants which the Flora of Vermont lists as not
generally common were collected in Newbury and Ryegate by Frederic
W. Grigg of Newtonville, Mass., and the writer, all doubtful or criti-
cal specimens having been determined by Prof. M. L. Fernald or other
Equisetum scirpoides, Ryegate, Newbury.
Andropogon furcatus, Ryegate, Wells River.
Panicum strictum (P. depauperatum) , Newbury.
Panicum tennesseense, Newbury.
Trisetum spicatum var. molle, Ryegate.
Poa debilis, Newbury.
Eleocharis ovata, Wells River.
Scirpus atrovirens, Newbury.
Carex tincta, Ryegate.
Carex aenea, Newbury.
Carex stellulata var. augustata, Wells River.
Carex albicans, Newbury.
Carex umbellata var. brevirostris, Ryegate.
Arisaema triphyllum, form with very narrow leafleats and spathe, New-
bury; form with lateral leaflets two-parted, Ryegate.
Allium Schoenoprasum var. sibiricum, Ryegate.^
Oakesia sessifolia, leaves variegated with yellow, Newbury.
Ornithogalum umbellatum, Newbury.
Sisyrinchium angustifolium, with 3-parted perianth, Newbury.
Cypripedium acaule, white form, Newbury.
Cypripediwm hirsutum, Newbury.
Cypripedium paviflorum, var. pubescens, Newbury.
Habenaria Hookeri, Newbury.
Habenaria orbiculata, Newbury.
Corallorrhiza maculata, Newbury.
Microstylis unifolia, Newbury.
Alnus crispa var. mollis, Wells River.
Urtica Lyallii, Ryegate, Wells River.
Humulus japonicus, Wells River.
Sagina procumbens, Newbury.
Stellaria borealis, Newbury.
Clematis verticillaris, Newbury.
22 Joint Bulletin 3
Lepidium virginicum, Wells River.
Raphanus Raphanistrum, Wells River.
Card amine pa?-viflo?~a, Newbury.
Arab is Drummondi, Newibury. .
Parnassia caroliniana, Newbury.
Amelanchier sanguinea, Ryegate.
Potentilla pumila, Wells River.
Rubus procumbens (R. villosus) , Newbury.
Agrimonia striata, Newbury.
Prunus pumila, Wells River.
Astragalus alpinus var. Brunetianus, Ryegate.
Amphicarpa Pitcheri, Wells River.
Geranium Bicknellii, Newbury.
Acer Negundo, Ryegate.
Hypericum majus, Newbury.
Viola rotundifolia, Ryegate, Newbury.
Viola renifolia, Newbury.
Viola renifolia var. Brainerdii, Newbury.
Oenthera cruciata, Wells River.
Panax quin que folium, Newbury.
Conioselinum chinense, Ryegate.
Moneses uniflora, Newbury.
Rhododendron maximum, Newbury.
Epigaea repens, Newbury.
Gaylussacia baccata, Newbury.
Vaccinium Vitis Idaea var. minus, Ryegate.
Lysimachia Nummulai'ia, Wells River.
Gentiana quinquefolia, Newbury.
Apocynum cannabinum, Wells River.
Asclepias phytolaccoides, Newbury.
Cynanchum nigrum, Wells River.
Myosotis arvensis, Wells River.
Lappula echinata, Wells River.
Physalis heterophylla var. am.bigua, Wells River.
Veronica arvensis, Newbury.
Scrophularia marilandica, Newbury.
Solidago squarrosa, Newbury.
Solidago racemosa, Ryegate.
Aster linariifolius, Ryegate, Newbury.
Cirsium discolor, Wells River.
Senecio Robbinsii, Newbury.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 23
THE MALE FERN, Asfiidium Filix-mas, AND ITS
E. 8. Shaiv
The male fern is a very common fern in Europe where as many as
14 varieties are listed. In this country the fern is considered very
rare, northern Michigan and Vermont being the only state east of the
Mississippi River where it is listed.
Thus far only six stations have been reported for Vermont, four
of them being in Windsor county, one in Brandon, and the other in
Northfield. At the last named station it is found in the same pro-
fusion as the more common species, hundreds of the strong clusters
being visible at once.
At this station there is also found an abundance of what is ap-
parently Aspidium Filix-mas marginalis.
This station offers an interesting field for further study.
It may be of interest to add that the male fern in Europe is the
one fern having recognized medicinal properties.
NEW PLANTS FOR ST. JOHNSBURY
Inez Addie Howe
The following additions were made to the flora of St. Johnsbury
during the summer of 1916: Vaccinium Oxycoccos, Iris pseudacorus,
Spiranthes lucida, Spiranthes cernua var. ochroleuca, Habenaria
dilatata var. media, Habenaria clavallata, Habenaria Andrewsii, Sper-
gula, arvensis, Smilacina trifolia, Viola fimbriatula, Salix lucida, Salix
fragilis, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Euphorbia hirsuta, Bromus inermis,
Carex trisperma, Carex Deweyana, Cyperus strigosus, Cyperus rivularis,
Dulichium arundinaceum,, Muhlenbergia foliosa, Eleocharis obtusa,
Juncus brachycephalus, and Juncus canadensis.
In Danville, stations for Geum macrophyllum, Stellaria borealis,
Habenaria macrophylla, Habenaria leucophaea, Corallorrhiza maculata,
and Scirpus validus were found.
On a day's trip to West Barnet the first week of July and another
to East Barnet in August these species were noted: Microstylis
monophyllos, Cornus circinata, Monotropa hypopytis, Ludvigia palustris,
Acalypha virginica. A fine specimen of Galium verum was sent me
from Barnet for identification.
Joint Buixettn 3
Habenaria fimbriata was found growing abundantly in Lunenburg
NOTES ON WEST RIVER FLORA
Leston A. Wheel* r
Although other matters have made an unusual demand on my
time the past season what time I have been able to give to botanical
pursuits has yielded some good results. Among new stations for
plants previously reported may be mentioned several for Polysticum
acrostichoides var. Schiceinitzii : two for Botrychium obliquum var.
dissectum and one each for Amelanchier sanguined, Monotropa
Hypopitys and Juncus marginatus in Townshend. Hesperis matronal is
was found in Newfane and Lillium philadelphicum in Dummerston.
Plants collected for the first time were: Osmunda cinnamomea with
fertile frond like the type and one like the variety frondosa. in Towns-
hend; potentilla canadensis and its variety in Townshend; Veronica
Tournefortii. Anthemis arvensis var. agrestis. Oxalis stricta. Galium
Mollugo. Juncus effusus var. solutus and Juncus secundus, all in Towns-
hend; Juncus tenuis var. Williamsii. Newfane, Townshend, Jamaica
and Stratton; Antennaria fallax and Carex laxiculmis var. copulata in
Newfane; Mcllilotus officinalis in Dummerston; Lychnis dioica.
Galinsoga parviflora var. liispida and Xanthium comm.une in Brattle-
boro (two last not from West River territory). At the Newfane meet-
ing of the American Fern society Aspidium Goldianum, Asplenium
angustifolium. Polystichum Braunii, Potentilla tridentata, Habenaria
macrophylla, Senecio aureus. Carex retroflera. C. Stellulata var. ex-
' Isis and Lychnis chalccdonica were found.
QUERCUS AMBIGUA MICHX
George P. Burns
When I first visited Ethan Allen park to study the oaks, I was
puzzled by the appearance, bark, leaves and fruit of some of the trees
found there. An examination of the literature at hand seemed to
show that these trees were Quercus ambigua Michx., which the last
Gray Manual gives as a variety of Quercus rubra L. This seemed to
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 25
me an impossible classification and when, last year, Professor Trelease
of the University of Illinois wrote me, asking for a specimen of
Quercus amMgua, I sent him leaves and fruit from some of the park
trees. He replied "that seeing is believing" and recognizes this tree.
This appears to me to be the more logical position but as long as our
systematic work rests on the present dogmatic basis, we will be unable
to determine such matters with certainty.
It is hoped to publish a more extended account of the matter later.
SHORT NOTES OF INTEREST
Effect of Wet Season
During 1916, a season of luxuriant growth, because of wet weather,
Leston A. Wheeler of Townshend, found a number of plants of special
interest as follows: A plant of Oxalis corniculata (among raspberries)
which measured three feet and six inches in height; plant of As-
plenium Trichomanes with over 70 fronds; Lillium philadelphicum with
three and four flowers.
Acadian Chickadees Abundant
During the fall of 1916 Vermont was visited by a large number of
Acadian chickadees which passed through all New England and mi-
grated farther south than ever before so far as ornithological records
show, reaching New Jersey. The birds began to appear in central
Vermont October 22 and during the week thereafter were abundant in
mixed woods at all altitudes. They were seen in good numbers until
mid-November and a few stragglers were about the first week in
December. Specimens taken in Massachusetts and Rhode Island show
that the birds which made the unusual southward movement were of
the form known as Penthestes Tiudsonicus nigricans, the Labrador
chickadee, and it is supposed that the Vermont birds were of this same
Unusual Date fob White-Throated Sparrow
Richard M. Marble of Woodstock reports in Birdlore, Vol. XIX;
1:13, that a white-throated sparrow remained at Woodstock until
Christmas day in 1916.
Specimens for Exchange
F. G. Floyd of 325 Park street, West Roxbury, Mass., wishes to ex-
change duplicate botanical books and local floras of New England
26 Joint Bulletin 3
with the club members. Leston A. Wheeler, Townshend, Vt., has Ver-
mont plants for exchange. E. H. Eames, 540 State street, Bridgeport,
Conn., also wishes to exchange botanical specimens.
Attractive Wild Orchid Photographs
W. E. Balch of Lunenburg has secured an unusually fine collection
of photographs of Vermont orchids, taken by him in their native
habitats. The collection includes pictures of growing plants of 37 of
53 species known to the state.
Hummingbird Fed from Hand
Leston A. Wheeler of Townshend reports a case where a ruby-
throated hummingbird suddenly appeared and thrust his bill into the
blossoms of a bouquet of nasturtiums which a lady in Townshend was
picking. The act of familiarity was repeated on other occasions.
Stroked a Brown Creeper
Miss Ella Munsell of Wells River had the unusual experience of
stroking the back of a brown creeper as it crept up the trunk of a
tree in its characteristic manner.
Harvey's Pond Beckons to the Botanist
Miss Mabel A. Shields of St. Johnsbury expresses the wish that
the Vermont Botanical and Bird clubs will meet at Harvey's pond in
the near future and in this connection she writes: "Harvey's pond at
West Barnet is an ideal place for a summer meeting. Rhododendron
bushes are found there and just to the south a half mile is a swamp
where calypso and the ramshead ladyslipper are found. There are
other orchids, too. Roy and Harvey mountains, between which the
pond lies, have botanical possibilities that have not been explored as
has a swamp at the outlet of the pond. There is a little hotel that
would accommodate most of the club and farm houses of the better
class would extend their hospitality."
Nelson's Sparrow in Vermont
While collecting in Otter Creek valley on October 8, 1916, Mr.
G. H. Ross and G. L. Kirk of Rutland secured two specimens of Nel-
son's sparrow, (Passerherbulus nelsoni Allen), one in Rutland and the
other in Clarendon. This is the first known record in Vermont for
this middle-western form of the sharp-tail sparrow. The birds were
seen balancing on grasses, wren fashion, their habits being noticeably
different from that of any native sparrow.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 27
Juncoes in January
Mr. Duane E. Kent of Rutland observed a flock of six slate-colored
juncoes at East Middlebury on January 26, 1916. This bird is very un-
common in mid-winter in Vermont.
Heather in Vermont
Miss Elizabeth Billings of Woodstock writes: "I would like to re-
port that I found heather growing on our place in Woodstock last
summer (1916).- It was near a plantation of white pines. There is a
second small station nearby."
Vermont Plants Far from Home
W. W. Eggleston of Washington, D. C, writes: "Tell the club
that in the Colville Mountains in the state of Washington, on the base
of Mount Bonaparte, I found Viola Selkirkii and Viola Brainerdi, new
to the state of Washington, Viola canadensis, Moneses grandiflora,
Pyrola secunda, Pyrola minor, Chimaphila corymbosa and quite a few
other Vermont plants.
On December 26, 1916, George L. Kirk secured in Mendon a downy
woodpecker which is of considerable interest. The bird is slightly
larger as to wing and total length than the average specimen of
Dryooates pubescens medianus, (the New England form), has slightly
large white spots on the back and wings and is almost without the
usual black bars on the outer feathers of the tail. In this respect the
bird resembles somewhat Nelson's downy woodpecker (D. p. nelsoni),
a northern form, but experts say that it is intermediate between Nel-
son's downy and the common bird of Vermont orchards. Birds like
the Mendon specimen have been secured in Massachusetts and else-
where in New England. It is interesting to note that these have been
all winter specimens, indicating that the birds are probably migrants
from some territory in the north which is intermediate between the
ranges of medianus and nelsoni.
Miss Ella Munsell of Wells River reports finding the following ab-
normal plant forms during botanical excursions: Buttercup with two
blossoms, back to back; buttercup blossom one and a quarter inches
in diameter; star flower with 10 leaves and some of them with three
flowers on one plant, some of them with nine petals; bunchberry with
28 Joint Bulletin 3
'•flower" one and three-quarter inches in diameter and in some cases
two leaves on stem in place of flowers; wild sarsaparilla in blossom
October 26, 1916.
OXYBAPHUS HlRSUTUS IN VERMONT
Mrs. Mary C. Munson of Manchester found Oxybaphus hirsutus
(Pursh) Sweet in her yard, growing as a weed.
The attaches of the Fairbanks museum kept the usual complete
bird migration list at St. Johnsbury during the season of 1916. The
list numbers 114 species including a number of unusual records which
are mentioned elsewhere in this bulletin. The Rutland list kept by
D. E. Kent, G. H. Ross and G. L. Kirk for 1916 numbers 145 species.
New Mint for Vermont
A new mint has been added to the Vermont flora Dracocephalum
parviflorum Nutt having been discovered in the west part of the town
of Clarendon by L. H. Potter of Clarendon.
In the paper "Mammals of Vermont," published in Vermont
Botanical and Bird Club Joint Bulletin No. 2, April, 1916, it was stated
by the author, G. L. Kirk, that the records for the smoky shrew, Sorex
fumeus Miller, referred to in the article, were the first for Vermont.
Mr. A. H. Howell of the United States biological survey calls attention
to the fact that he collected the little animal on Mount Mansfield some
years previous to the trapping of the specimens cited in the bulletin
and the first records were published in the Auk. Mr. Howell's mammal
article had not come to the attention of the writer of the Vermont
paper at the time the 1916 bullein appeared. Mr. Howell states that
he also secured the northern form of the red squirrel, Sciurus hud-
sonicus gymnicus Bangs on Mount Mansfield. All Vermont specimens
secured by Mr. Kirk (including collections made from Berkshire to the
Massachusetts line) have been the more southern 8. h. loquax Bangs.
Unusual Plight of Pipits
Pipits were unusually abundant in the Otter Creek valley about
Rutland in the fall of 1916. While these birds are regular migrants
on Lake Champlain they are uncommon or irregular in the interior.
They began to appear on September 28, were about in great numbers
October 8-10 and stragglers were seen until November 5.
Vermont Botanical and Bird Club 29
Prothonotary Warblers in Vermont
"Evening grosbeaks from January 20 to May 9, 1916, and returning
on December 13, 1916, were St. Johnsbury's most famous bird guests
during the past year," writes Miss Inez Addie Howe. "Now they are
quite at home in the village for the winter (January). Rusty black-
birds nested in St. Johnsbury during the season of 1916. Prothonotary
warblers were seen in and near St. Johnsbury from May 14 to July 22,
1916. I have every reason to believe that they nested at Stiles' pond,
although I could not find the nest. Two, evidently a pair, were seen
there at intervals from June 20 to July 22. On May 16, I saw a least
sandpiper on Sleepers river above Emerson Falls. A pair of towhees
were noted June 10. A water thrush nested at Lime pond in Danville
last season, the nesting site being very near to the home of a large
colony of muskrats."
Woodstock Has Bird Club
Following a lecture by Ernest Harold Baynes before the Lucy
Mackenzie Humane society, (Woodstock), in November, 1916, a bird
club was organized to be conducted under its auspices. Mrs. W. H.
Moore was chosen president and Mr. Richard Marble, secretary. Fifty
dollars was voted for the immediate use of the club, ond plans are under
way for the establishment of feed stations in various parts of the vil-
lage, as well as for an organized campaign against the encroachment
of the English^sparrow.
Doings of Hartland Club
"The Hartland Nature club continued its study of the song and
chipping sparrow in 1916, devoting one meeting to the subject, and
adding some interesting nests of both birds to their collection," writes
Mrs. A. B. Morgan.
lit II H